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The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996


  1. Introduction
  2. Tropical Cyclone Terminology
  3. Casualty Information
  4. Storm Lists and Statistics
  5. Conclusions
  6. Acknowledgements and References
  7. Appendix 1: Cyclones with 25+ deaths
  8. Appendix 2: Cyclones that may have 25+ deaths
  9. Notes to the Appendices
  10. References to the Appendices

References to the Appendices

A Dunn, G. E., and B. I. Miller, 1964: Atlantic hurricanes. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 377 pp.

B Depradine, C. A., 1989: Pre-1900 severe hurricanes in the Caribbean. Notes compiled for the Caribbean Meteorological Institute, St. James, Barbados

C Lester, P., 1900: The great Galveston disaster. Library of Congress, 536 pp.

D Hebert, P. J., J. D. Jarrell, and M. Mayfield, 1993: The deadliest, costliest, and most intense United States hurricanes of this century, NOAA, Technical Memorandum NWS-NHC-31, 41 pp.

E Sugg, A. L., and R. L. Carrodus, 1969: Memorable hurricanes of the United States since 1873. ESSA Technical Memorandum WBTM SR-42, U.S. Department of Commerce, 44 pp.

F Hasling, J. F., 1982: Texas hurricanes. Printed by University of St. Thomas Institute for Storm Research.

G Clark, G., 1988: Hurricanes of the Caribbean Sea (unpublished notes compiled by the author), National Hurricane Center, Miami.

H Hughes, P., 1987: Hurricanes haunt our history. Weatherwise, 40 (3): 134-140.

I Salivia, L. A., 1972: Historia de los temporales de Puerto Rico y las Antillas, Editorial Edil, Inc., San Juan, Puerto Rico, 385 pp.

J Alexander, W. H., 1902: Hurricanes: Especially those of Porto Rico and St. Kitts. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Bulletin No. 32, 79 pp.

K Santo Domingo. Su destruccion por el huracan del 3 de Septiembre de 1930. Editado por las Empresa Diario del Comercio, Roques Roman Hnos, 1930, 60 pp.

L Ludlum, D. M., 1963: Early American hurricanes, 1492-1870. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 198 pp.

M Millas, J. C., 1968: Hurricanes of the Caribbean and adjacent regions, 1492-1800. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, Florida, 328 pp.

N Ortiz, R. H., 1977: Los dos huracanes mas intensos que han azotado a la Habana en este siglo (20 de Octubre de 1926 y 18 de Octubre de 1944). Informe Cientifico-Technico, 25, Academia de Ciencas de Cuba, Direccion de publicaciones de la ACC, La Habana, 14 pp.

O Unpublished excerpts from Hay, L. G., 1884: A handbook of the colony of Tobago, Government Printing Office, Scarborough, Tobago.

P Poey, A., 1862: Table Chronologique de quatre cents cyclones. Paris, 49 pp.

Q Carney, C. B., and A. V. Hardy, 1969: North Carolina hurricanes. U. S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Services Administration, Weather Bureau, 39 pp.

R Monthly Weather Review, U.S. Signal Office, 1-18, 1872-1890; U. S. Weather Bureau, 19-98, 1891-1970; National Weather Service, 99-101, 1971-1973; American Meteorological Society, 101-125, 1974-1997.

S Sullivan, C. L., 1986: Hurricanes of the Mississippi Gulf coast - 1717 to present.Gulf Publishing Company, Inc., 139 pp.

T Tannehill, I. R., 1940: Hurricane. Their nature and history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 257 pp.

U Admiralty Papers 1/243, Public Records Office, London (excerpt on file at National Hurricane Center)

V The New York Times (selected issues)

W Diario de la Marina of Havana (selected issues)

Y Schomburgk, R. H., 1848: The history of Barbados. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. London, 695 pp.

X Ho, F. P., 1989: Extreme Hurricanes in the Nineteenth Century. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 43A, Silver Spring, Maryland, 134 pp.

Z Miami Metropolis and The Tampa Morning Tribune (12 and 14 October 1909)

AA Ousley, C., 1900: Galveston in Nineteen Hundred - The authorized and official record of the proud city of the southwest as it was before and after the hurricane of September 8, and a logical forecast of its future. William C. Chase, Atlanta, 346 pp.

AB Mahuma, S., 1994: Hurricanes and tropical storms of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. Meteorological Service of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, Curacao, N.A., 40 pp.

AC Winds and weather of the West Indian region, U.S. Weather Bureau, 1940, 190 pp.

AD Final Report of the Caribbean hurricane seminar (1956). Published in 1958 by the Government of the Dominican Republic, Ciudada Trujillo, D. R., 395 pp.

AE Analisis preliminar de la precipitacion producida por el Huracan "Fifi" a su pa so por Honduras, 1975. Publicacion No. 110, Proyecto Hon/72/006: Meteorologia e Hidrologia, Sevicio Meteorologico Nacional, Republica de Honduras, 27 pp.

AF Flament, P., and R. Martin. Le cyclone Allen - du 29 julliet au 12 aout 1980. L'Association Meteorologique de la Martinique, avec le concours, du Conseil General de la Maritinique, et du Service Meterologique Antilles-Guyane, 32 pp.

AG Garriott, E. B., 1900: West Indian hurricanes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Bulletin H, Washington, D. C., 66 pp. (This work includes some notes of Alexander published by that author in 1902).

AH The London Times (selected issues)

AI Sarasola, S., 1928: Los huracanes de las Antillas. Imprenta Clasica Espanola, Madrid, Spain, 1928, 254 pp. (Contains Gutierrez-Lanza Appendix: Ciclones que han pasado por la isla de Cuba, o tan cerca que hayan hecho sentir en ella sus efectos con alguna fuerza, desde 1865 a 1926.)

AJ Evans, J. (Stormy Jack), 1848: Hurricanes 1493-1848. Nautical Magazine, London.

AK Rodriguez-Ferrer, M., 1876: Naturaleza y civilizacion de la grandiosa isla de Cuba. Printed by J. Noguera, Madrid.

AL Mitchell, C. L., 1924: West Indian hurricanes and other cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev., Supplement No. 24. U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C., 47 pp.

AM The Miami Herald (selected issues)

AN The Miami Daily News and Metropolis (selected issues)

AO The Daily Universal Register of London (selected issues)

AP Herrera, D., 1847: Memoria sobre los huracanes en la isla de Cuba. Imprenta de Barcina, Habana, 72 pp.

AQ Greely, A. W., 1888: American Weather. Dodd, Mead & Company, New York, N. Y., 286 pp.

AR Seon, K. Preliminary disaster catalog - Jamaica. Unpublished report, 31 pp.

AS New York Daily Times (selected issues)

AT Williams, N., 1992: A history of the Cayman Islands. The Government of the Cayman Islands, Grand Cayman, 94 pp.

AU Unpublished documents of the Cayman Islands National Archive

AV Chapman, D. J. Our southern summer storm. Report from National Weather Service Office, Norfolk, Virginia.

AW Reid, W., 1841: Law of storms. John Weale, London, 566 pp.

AX Piddington, H., 1852: The sailor's horn-book for the law of storms. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 360 pp.

AY Perez, O.: Notes on the tropical cyclones of Puerto Rico, 1508-1970.

AZ The Sunday Gleaner, 29 July 1986, Jamaica

BA Burns, A. C., 1954: History of the British West Indies. Barnes & Noble, New York, 821 pp.

BB List of Disasters that occurred in the Caribbean. Unpublished notes at the National Hurricane Center; date(s) of storms uncertain.

BC Hurricanes in the West Indies by country 1500-1979. CDPS Information Exchange, 1980, 70 pp.

BD Marx, R. F., 1983: Shipwrecks in the Americas. Bonanza Books, 482 pp.

BE Cardona Bonet, W. A., 1989: Shipwrecks in Puerto Rico's history, I, 1502-1650. Model Offset Printing, Inc., 371 pp.

BF Marx, R. F., 1981: Shipwrecks in Mexican waters. Pablo Bush Romero and Club de Exploraciones y Deportes Acuaticos de Mexico, 76 pp.

BG Huntress, K. G., 1979: A checklist of narratives of shipwrecks and disasters at sea to 1860. The Iowa State University Press, 194 pp.

BH Principal marine disaster since 1831. U. S. Department of Transportation, U. S. Coast Guard, 13 pp.

BI Tannehill, I. R., 1955: Hurricane hunters. Dodd, Mead & Company, New York, 271 pp.

BJ The North-American Review and Miscellaneous Journal, Nov 1815, Boston, p. 57-59.

BK Niles' Weekly Register-Chronicle (7 Oct 1815 and 27 Aug 1825), Baltimore, Maryland.

BL Soulan, I, 1994: Cyclones tropicaux les plus meurtriers de l'Atlantique. Personal communication, 2 pp.

BM Shipwrecks and disasters at sea. Milner and Sowerby, 1863, Halifax, 448 pp.

BN Lloyd's List. Extant issues 1741-1784 and 1790-1797 from Gregg International Publishers Limited (1969), Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England

BO Robinson, C., 1848: An account of discoveries in the west until 1519. Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society, 491 pp.

BP Singer, S., 1992: Shipwrecks of Florida. Pineapple Press, Inc., 368 pp.

BQ Seibold, D. J., and C. J. Adams, 1989: Shipwrecks, sea stories & legends of the Delaware coast. Exeter House Books, Barnegat Light, New Jersey, 171 pp.

BR Hunter, M. N., 1982: A watery fate for the lost colony. The State, 3 pp. Information supplemented by other documents of the author.

BS Snow, E. R., 1952: Great gales and dire disasters. Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 263 pp.

BT Gibbs, T, 1994: Personal communication, with total provided by Pan American Health Organisation, Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination Programme Office, Barbados.

BU Ellms, C., 1860: Shipwrecks and disasters at sea. I. J. Rouse, New York, 428 pp.

BV Villiers, A., 1957: Wild ocean. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 326 pp.

BW Price, W. A., 1956: Hurricanes affecting the coast of Texas from Galveston to Rio Grande. U. S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Technical Memorandum No. 78, 17 pp.

BX Snow, E. R., 1943: Great storms and famous shipwrecks of the New England coast. The Yankee Publishing Company, Boston, 338 pp.

BY Gilly, W. O. S., 1864: Narratives of shipwrecks of the Royal Navy: between 1793 and 1857. Longmans, London, 332 pp.

BZ Redfield, W. C., 1846: On the several hurricanes of the American seas and their relations to the Northers, so called, of the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Honduras, with charts illustrating the same. The American Journal of Science, 52, 162-187 and 311-334.

CA Unpublished notes at the National Hurricane Center.

CB Cline, I. M., 1926: Tropical cyclones. The Macmillian Company, New York, 301 pp.

CC Muirwood, R., and G. Woo, 1994: Personal communication based on excerpts of letters about this hurricane. EQE International Limited, EQE House, 500 Longbarn Boulevard, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA2 0XF.

CD Fisher, D. E., 1994: The scariest place on earth. Random House, New York, 250 pp.

CE Oxford Gazette and London Gazette (1665-1670)

CF Stevenson, J. D., 1989: History of tropical cyclones and North Carolina. Report from National Weather Service, Wilmington, NC 28405.

CG Barnes, J., 1995: North Carolina's hurricane history. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 202 pp.

CH Tebeau, C. W., 1975: A history of Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, FL, 502 pp.

CI Stick, D. A., 1952: Graveyard of the Atlantic. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 276 pp.

CJ Gentleman's Magazine, 1731-1740. London.

CK The London Gazette of 2-6 Dec 1675.

CL Walton, T. R., 1994: The Spanish treasure fleets. Pineapple Press, Inc., 256 pp.

CM Peterson, M., 1975: The funnel of gold. Little, Brown and Company, Boston and Toronto, 480 pp.

CN Douglas, M. S., 1958: Hurricane. Rinehart & Company, Inc. New York, 393 pp.

CO Parsons, R. C., 1994: Red Harbour: Death on the crosstrees. Newfoundland Quarterly, LXXXVIII (4), 25-26.

CP The Western Star newspaper of Newfoundland (selected issues)

CQ Chaunu, H., and P., 1955: Seville et l'Atlantique (1504-1560). Multiple volumes published beginning 1955. Librairie Armand Colin, Paris.

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