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The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996


  1. Introduction
  2. Tropical Cyclone Terminology
  3. Casualty Information
  4. Storm Lists and Statistics
  5. Conclusions
  6. Acknowledgements and References
  7. Appendix 1: Cyclones with 25+ deaths
  8. Appendix 2: Cyclones that may have 25+ deaths
  9. Notes to the Appendices
  10. References to the Appendices

6. Conclusions

Ms. Sally Haff and Mr. Robert Britter helped identify many of the reference materials used in this study. Mr. Brian Jarvinen of the NHC Storm Surge Group provided information about storm surge.

References in Text

AMS 1973: Policy statement on hurricanes by the American Meteorological Society. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 54: 46-47.

Cameron, A., and R. Farndon, 1984: Scenes from sea and city, Lloyd's List 1734-1984. Lloyd's List, Lloyd's of London Press Ltd, London, 288 pp.

Carney, C. B., and A. V. Hardy, 1969: North Carolina hurricanes. U. S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Services Administration, Weather Bureau, 39 pp.

Carpenter, S. M., and T. G. Carpenter, 1993: The hurricane handbook. Tailored Tours Publications, Inc., Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 128 pp.

Davis, R. A., Jr., S. C. Knowles, and M. J. Bland, 1989: Role of hurricanes in the Holocene stratigraphy of estuaries: Examples from the Gulf coast of Florida. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 59 (6): 1052-1061.

Doig, S. K., 1992: Storm: A wobble away from greater disaster. The Miami Herald, 6 September 1992.

Dunn, G. E., 1971: A brief history of the United States hurricane warning service. Muse News, 3: 140-143.

Garrett, R., 1986: Atlantic disasters: the Titanic and other victims of the North Atlantic. Buchan & Enright, London, 286 pp.

Garriott, E. B., 1910: Weather, forecasts, and warnings for the month. Mon. Wea. Rev., 37: 539.

Hebert, P. J., J. D. Jarrell, and M. Mayfield, 1993: The deadliest, costliest, and most intense United States hurricanes of this century. NOAA, Technical Memorandum NWS-NHC-31, 41 pp.

Hughes, P., 1987: Hurricanes haunt our history. Weatherwise, 40 (3): 134-140.

Hughes, P., 1990: The great Galveston hurricane. Weatherwise, 43 (4): 190-198.

Hunter, M. N., 1982: A watery fate for the lost colony. The State, 3 pp. Information supplemented by other documents of this author.

Inwards, R., 1898: Weather Lore. Elliot Stock, London, p. 86.

Konrad, H. W., 1985: Fallout of the wars of the Chacs: The impact of hurricanes and implications for prehispanic Quintana Roo Maya processes. Status, structure and stratification: Current archaeological reconstructions. University of Calgary, Calgary, pp. 321-330.

Lester, P., 1900: The great Galveston disaster. Library of Congress, 536 pp.

Liu, K., and M. L. Fearn, 1993: Lake-sediment record of late Holocene hurricane activities from coastal Alabama. Geology, 21 (9): 793-796.

Lloyd's List. Extant issues 1741-1784 and 1790-1797, Gregg International Publishers Limited (1969), Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England.

Ludlum, D. M., 1963: Early American hurricanes, 1492-1870. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 198 pp.

Marx, R. F., 1981: Shipwrecks in Mexican waters. Pablo Bush Romero and Club de Exploraciones y Deportes Acuaticos de Mexico, 76 pp.

Marx, R. F., 1983: Shipwrecks in the Americas. Bonanza Books, 482 pp.

Mayfield, M., L. Avila, and E. N. Rappaport, 1993: Atlantic hurricane season of 1992. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 (3): 517-538.

Millas, J. C., 1968: Hurricanes of the Caribbean and adjacent regions, 1492-1800. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, 328 pp.

Milner and Sowerby, 1863: Shipwrecks and disasters at sea. Halifax, 448 pp.

National Weather Service Operations Manual Chapter C-41, 1993: Hurricane Warnings. U. S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Maryland, 49 pp.

Neumann, C. J., B. R. Jarvinen, C. J. McAdie, and J. D. Elms, 1993: Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992. NOAA Historical Climatology Series 6-2, Asheville, 193 pp.

Ousley, C., 1900: Galveston in Nineteen Hundred - The authorized and official record of the proud city of the southwest as it was before and after the hurricane of September 8, and a logical forecast of its future. William C. Chase, Atlanta, 346 pp.

Parliament Select Committee, 1839: Report from the Select Committee appointed to inquire into the cause of shipwrecks, 15 August 1836, 388 pp., and Report from Select Committee on shipwrecks of timber ships, August 1839, 137 pp. Southampton University, Great Britain.

Perez, O. (date unknown): Notes on tropical cyclones of Puerto Rico, 1508-1970.

Pilkey, O. H., Jr., D. C. Sharma, H. R. Wanless, L. J. Doyle, O. H. Pilkey, Sr., W. J. Neal, and B. L. Gruver, 1984: Living with the east Florida shore. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, 259 pp.

Poey, A., 1862: Table Chronologique de quatre cents cyclones. Paris, 49 pp.

Rappaport, E. N., 1993: Preliminary report on Hurricane Andrew. NOAA National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, Florida, 38 pp. (Available from the National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, North Carolina, 28801.)

Redfield, W. C., 1836: On the gales and hurricanes of the western Atlantic. U. S. Naval Magazine, 1-19.

Redfield, W. C., 1846: On three several hurricanes of the American seas and their relations to the Northers, so called, of the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Honduras, with charts illustrating the same. The American Journal of Science, 52: 162-187, 311-334.

Reid, W. 1841: Law of storms. John Weale, London, 566 pp.

Seibold, D. J., and C. J. Adams, 1989: Shipwrecks, sea stories & legends of the Delaware coast. Exeter House Books, Barnegat Light, New Jersey, 171 pp.

Sheets, R. C., 1990: The National Hurricane Center past, present, and future. Wea. and Forecasting, 5 2): 185-232.

Sugg, A. L., 1968: Beneficial aspects of the tropical cyclone. J. Appl. Met., 7: 39-45.

Stevenson, J. D., 1989: History of tropical cyclones and North Carolina. Report from National Weather Service, Wilmington, NC.

Snow, E. R., 1943: Great storms and famous shipwrecks of the New England coast. The Yankee Publishing Company, Boston, 338 pp.

Tannehill, I. R., 1940: Hurricanes. Their nature and history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 257 pp.

Tannehill, I. R., 1955: Hurricane Hunters. Cornwall Press, Inc., Cornwall, N. Y., 271 pp.

The Daily Universal Register newspaper of London.

The Encyclopedia Americana, Deluxe Library Edition, 1994. Grolier Incorporated, Danbury, Connecticut.

Next: Appendix 1: Cyclones with 25+ deaths