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Preliminary Report
Hurricane Georges
15 September - 01 October 1998

John L. Guiney
National Hurricane Center
5 January 1999

Tropical Storm Alex
Hurricane Bonnie
Tropical Storm Charley
Hurricane Danielle
Hurricane Earl
Tropical Storm Frances
Hurricane Georges
Tropical Storm Hermine
Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Jeanne
Hurricane Karl
Hurricane Lisa
Hurricane Mitch
Hurricane Nicole

[1998 Atlantic Hurricane Season]

Georges (pronounced Zhorzh) was the second deadliest and second strongest hurricane within the Atlantic basin during the 1998 season. Its 17 day journey resulted in seven landfalls, extending from the northeastern Caribbean to the coast of Mississippi, and 602 fatalities -- mainly in the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

a. Synoptic History

Georges originated from a tropical wave, observed by satellite and upper-air data, which crossed the west coast of Africa late on 13 September. Rawinsonde data from Dakar, Senegal showed an attendant 35 to 45 knot easterly jet between 550 and 650 millibars (mb). On the 14th, visible satellite imagery depicted a large, well-defined cloud system in association with the wave and meteorologists at the Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center (NHC) Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB), the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, and the Air Force Weather Agency (AFGWC) began satellite-based Dvorak intensity classifications. By early on the 15th, ship reports indicated the presence of a closed surface circulation in this system and it is estimated that a tropical depression formed at 1200 UTC, centered about 300 n mi south-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands in the far eastern Atlantic, as shown in the post-storm "best-track" - see Table 1 and Figure 1 (39K GIF). During the next 24 hours the tropical depression continued to become better organized as banding features developed and deep convection formed over the center. The system became a tropical storm at 1200 UTC on 16 September while centered about 620 n mi west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands. Georges moved on a persistent west-northwest course for the next ten days, a classic Cape Verde-type track, in response to a mid- to upper-level tropospheric ridge which strengthened with height.

Georges continued to gradually strengthen over the next several days, reaching hurricane intensity around 1800 UTC on 17 September when a banding-type eye feature became evident in satellite imagery. By the 19th, an upper-level anticyclone was well-established over Georges and satellite pictures suggested that the hurricane was beginning to strengthen rapidly, as indicated by the cooling cloud tops, increased symmetry of the deep convection, and the warming and contracting of the well-defined eye.

By early afternoon on the 19th, the first U.S. Air Force Reserve (USAFR) reconnaissance aircraft reached the hurricane and measured maximum flight-level winds of 146 knots and a minimum central pressure of 938 mb - confirming the intensification trend noted in satellite imagery. Georges' winds were increased to 125 knots at 1800 UTC on the 19th making it a category four hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

Several Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwinsondes were deployed within the eye-wall region of the hurricane during these reconnaissance missions. Near-surface (below 200 feet) wind estimates from these drops indicate maximum winds from 134 knots to 150 knots. On this basis, Georges is estimated to have reached a peak intensity of 135 knots at 0600 UTC on the 20th while located about 285 n mi east of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles. Although GPS Dropwinsondes data is still being evaluated by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division, preliminary research suggests that the observed near-surface winds approximate one-minute values. For additional information on the GPS Dropwindsondes, please see Franklin (1997) and Franklin et. al. (1997).

Shortly after 0600 UTC 20 September, the hurricane began a marked weakening trend with the eye becoming indiscernible in satellite pictures, or to aerial reconnaissance by that afternoon. Examination of water vapor satellite imagery and satellite-derived wind analyses from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin suggest that one possible factor responsible for the weakening could have been upper-level northerly vertical wind shear induced by an upper-level anticyclone located over the eastern Caribbean. By the evening of the 20th, the central pressure had risen 26 mb and Georges weakened. It then made the first two of its seven landfalls in the Lesser Antilles, first in Antigua then in St. Kitts and Nevis, early on the 21st with maximum sustained surface winds of 100 knots.

By mid-morning of the 21st an upper-level low over Cuba, denoted in water vapor imagery, was moving westward away from Georges thereby reducing the possibility of Georges moving to the northwest, away from Puerto Rico. Later in the afternoon, the shear appeared to diminish and the outflow aloft improved but Georges never fully recovered due in part to the circulation's interaction with Puerto Rico. Georges made landfall in southeast Puerto Rico with sustained surface winds of 100 knots on the evening of the 21st. The hurricane moved inland over Puerto Rico and weakened slightly and then moved into the Mona Passage early on the 22nd. Georges began to re-intensify while over the Mona Passage and made landfall later that morning in the Dominican Republic, about 75 n mi east of Santo Domingo with estimated sustained surface winds of 105 knots.

During the next 21 hours Georges weakened as it moved slowly across the mountainous terrain of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, where it produced copious rains resulting in deadly flash floods and mud slides. The system emerged into the Windward Passage on the morning of the 23rd with 65 knot maximum winds. Georges changed little before making landfall in eastern Cuba later that afternoon, about 25 n mi east of Guantanamo Bay. The system retained hurricane status while moving slowly west-northwestward across the northern coast of Cuba, exiting the northern coast by late afternoon on the 24th. Satellite imagery showed that the system retained a fairly impressive upper-level outflow pattern during its crossing of both Hispaniola and Cuba.

Once back over water, the hurricane began to re-intensify. Satellite pictures showed that a band of deep convection developed east of the center early on the 25th which expanded throughout the morning. Georges made landfall during mid-morning of the 25th in Key West, Florida with a minimum central pressure of 981 mb and maximum winds of 90 knots. After moving away from Key West, Georges turned more to the northwest, then north-northwest, and gradually slowed down on the 26th and 27th. This occurred in response to the mid-tropospheric anticyclone north of the hurricane shifting eastward into the southeastern United States. The hurricane made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi on the morning of the 28th with estimated maximum sustained one-minute winds of 90 knots and a minimum central pressure of 964 mb. After landfall, the system meandered around southern Mississippi and was downgraded to a tropical storm on the afternoon of the 28th.

Georges became quasi-stationary for the next 6 to 12 hours moving in a cyclonic loop over southern Mississippi. The tropical storm began moving in a generally northeast to east direction early on the 29th and was downgraded to a tropical depression by mid-morning while located about 30 n mi north-northeast of Mobile, Alabama. Georges continued to move eastward at 5 to 10 knots on the 29th and 30th. By early morning of 1 October, the system dissipated near the northeast Florida/southeast Georgia coast, although a very weak remnant low did emerge over the western Atlantic during the day. However, the remnant circulation merged with a frontal zone by late on the 1st.

b. Meteorological Statistics

The best-track intensities in Table 1 were obtained from the data in Figures 2 (26K GIF) and 3 (30K GIF) which depict the curves of minimum central sea-level pressure and maximum sustained one-minute average "surface" (10 meters above ground level) wind speed, respectively, as a function of time. These figures also contain data upon which the curves are based: USAFR and NOAA aircraft reconnaissance data, satellite-based Dvorak-technique intensity estimates from TAFB, SAB, and AFGWC, and estimates from synoptic data analyses after landfall.

1. Wind and Pressure Data

The bulk of the aerial reconnaissance flights into Georges were done by the USAFR "Hurricane Hunters". The Hurricane Hunters flew 17 missions, and made 81 center fixes while NOAA aircraft performed six missions contributing 24 center fixes. The highest wind speed reported was 152 knots (at 700 mb) at 0112 UTC 20 September by the NOAA aircraft. The lowest central pressure reported was 937 mb at 0613 UTC 20 September by the Hurricane Hunters with a corresponding maximum flight-level wind of 144 knots. During this period, subjective Dvorak intensity estimates from TAFB, SAB and AFGWC were T6.5 (127 knots/935 mb) and objective-based Dvorak estimates ranged between T6.5 and T7.0 (140 knots/921 mb), all in good agreement with GPS dropwindsonde pressure and wind estimates.

George's track brought it into range of several National Weather Service Doppler radars (WSR-88D - Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler) specifically; San Juan, Puerto Rico, Key West, FL, New Orleans, LA, and Mobile, AL. The WSR-88D in San Juan, Puerto Rico measured winds near 100 knots aloft at 0205 UTC 22 September while the center was located over central Puerto Rico. Dr. Joshua Wurman of the University of Oklahoma was operating his dual doppler radar (Doppler-on-Wheels DOW) during Georges' landfall in Biloxi, Mississippi. Around 0855 UTC 28 September, the radar showed maximum wind near 107 knots, which represents a 2 to 5 second gust. For further information on the DOW radar project, please refer to Wurman (1998).

Several land-based locations within the Caribbean recorded sustained hurricane-force winds during Georges passage including Hamilton Airport and VITEMA/Herman Hill in St. Croix, Cyril E. King Airport in St. Thomas, and all the official reporting sites in Puerto Rico. The highest sustained wind and gust reported at an official site was 78 knots and 93 knots, respectively, at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station (TJNR) at 2302 UTC 21 September. These, as well as other selected surface observations for Georges, are listed in Table 2. The highest unofficial wind report received in the Caribbean was a wind gust of 153 knots (at an elevation of about 700 feet) from the island of Saba of the Netherlands Antilles at 1044 UTC 21 September. The corresponding minimum pressure recorded at the site was 971.9 mb.

As is often the case in the Caribbean, many unofficial weather reports are relayed to the NHC via amateur radio operators. These observations are invaluable in helping to determine conditions in locations with no official weather reporting equipment. Table 3 lists selected amateur radio surface weather reports for Georges. One of the most important observations reported was in Fajardo, Puerto Rico where the Civil Defense office measured a sustained wind of 96 knots with gusts to 113 knots at 2130 UTC 21 September. Operationally, this report was the basis of making Georges a category 3 hurricane at andfall in Puerto Rico.

The USAFR reconnaissance reported a maximum flight-level wind of 117 knots and a minimum central pressure of 962 mb near the time of landfall in southeast Dominican Republic.

Surface reports received from the Instituto de Meteorologica in Cuba indicate that the maximum 1-minute surface wind observed was 71 knots at Punta Lucrecia, Holguin while the highest gust of 80 knots was measured at Sagua La Grande, Villa Clara. The minimum central pressure recorded over Cuba was 988 mb in Cayo Coco. All of these reports occurred as Georges moved out of Cuba and into the Florida Straits where it began to restrengthen.

The maximum sustained 2-minute wind recorded at Key West, FL was 48 knots at 1353 UTC 25 September with the peak gust of 76 knots; the minimum central pressure reported was 982.5 mb. It should be noted that due to equipment/power failure around 1500 UTC a higher wind and a lower pressure value likely occurred. The highest gust recorded in the Florida Keys was 96 knots at the Monroe County Emergency Operations Center in Marathon. The Sombrero Key C-MAN buoy (SMKF1) recorded a maximum sustained wind of 82 knots with a peak gust to 92 knots at 1500 UTC 25 September. Moreover, this buoy recorded hurricane-force winds for a three hour period (1300 - 1600 UTC). This, along with other National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) observations, can be found in Table 4.

Georges made its final landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi around 1130 UTC on 28 September with maximum sustained surface winds of 90 knots and a minimum central pressure of 964 mb. The USAFR aircraft reported a 960 mb pressure at 0503 UTC. The lowest pressure measured by a land station was 964.9 mb at 1055 UTC 28 September at Keesler Air Force Base (KBIX) in Biloxi, MS; Harrison County Civil Defense in Gulfport, MS recorded 967.2 mb at 1015 UTC. The NOAA ship Oregon II measured a minimum central pressure of 970 mb at 0830 UTC 28 September while in port in Pascagoula, MS. On the 28th, Keesler Air Force Base (KBIX) in Biloxi, MS reported sustained hurricane-force winds (65 knots) at 0855 UTC. At 0755 UTC, KBIX reported wind gusts of 109 knots, and 149 knots at 0855 UTC 28 September. The latter value is considered to be invalid based on the following: 1) DOW dual doppler maximum wind measurements made at the same time at KBIX were near 107 knots (considered a 2-5 second gust); 2) the anemometer at KBIX is a hot-wire anemometer which has been shown to be prone to major errors in heavy rain, e.g., the erroneous 205 knot wind gust in Typhoon Paka (Hagemeyer, 1998); 3) USAFR dropwindsonde data from the same time period measured a peak wind of 101 knots at 920 mb. An Texas Instrument WR25 anemometer, operated by Mississippi Power and Light one mile north of the beach in Biloxi, measured a wind gust of 102 knots.

Reconnaissance data from the USAFR aircraft suggest that the boundary layer and inner core of the Georges never fully recovered from its passage across Hispaniola and Cuba. Despite an apparently healthy cloud and outflow pattern and a small, but gradual, drop in the minimum central pressure of 13 mb (975-962 mb) in a 36-hour period from early on the 26th to the evening of the 27th, the eye was never able to become re-established. Most of the vortex messages from the 26th through the 28th reported a partially-formed eyewall - mostly open to the west or southwest. Also, eyewall GPS dropwinsonde data near landfall in Mississippi suggest that the winds at the surface were 20-30% below those at flight level (10,000 feet). This is in stark contrast to eyewall samples taken when Georges was near peak intensity just east of the Leeward Islands where the surface winds, on average, were equal to or greater than those at 10,000 feet.

Table 4 contains all known ship observations which reported winds of tropical storm-force (34 knots) or higher associated with Georges. The highest wind observation was 44 knots from Ship PJKP at 1500 UTC 29 September in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest significant wave height reported by a ship was 13 feet (WFLG at 0900 UTC 22 September and C6JN at 1800 UTC 29 September) while the highest value recorded at a NDBC buoy was near 36 feet at 42040 in the Gulf of Mexico.

2. Storm Surge Data

The storm surge was estimated to be near 10 feet in Fajardo, Puerto Rico while values of 4 to 6 feet were typical in the Florida Keys. Preliminary storm surge estimates along the central and east Gulf Coast range from 5 to 9 feet in Louisiana and Mississippi (maximum of 8.9 feet at Point A La Hache, LA and Point Cadet, Biloxi, MS) to 5 to 12 feet in Alabama (5 to 10 feet in Mobile County and 7 to 12 feet in Baldwin County). The two highest values received from Alabama are 9.3 feet which occurred in west Mobile Bay, and 11.9 feet in Fort Morgan. In the Florida Panhandle, the storm surge in Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa Counties was estimated to be 5 to 10 feet. Of course breaking waves superimposed on the storm surge will result in even higher water marks. At the time of this writing, official United States Corps of Engineers/Geological Survey (USCE/USGS) storm surge site survey values have not been received.

3. Rainfall Data

Georges was a substantial rain-producer in portions of the Caribbean and the central/eastern Gulf of Mexico coast. In the U.S. Virgin islands, rainfall totals were generally between 3 and 8 inches. In Puerto Rico, the maximum official two-day USGS rain gage measurement was 24.62 IN in Lago El Guineo near Villalba while the maximum Cooperative Observer (CO-OP) two-day total reported was 28.36 inches in Jayuya. Figure 4 (43K GIF) shows the USGS rainfall analysis for Puerto Rico in 5-inch isohyets - of particular interest is the large swath of 10-15 inch values.

No surface-based rainfall estimates are available from the Dominican Republic or Haiti, two of the hardest-hit countries. Satellite-derived rainfall estimates suggest that as much as 39 inches of rain may have fallen over portions of the Dominican Republic and Haiti over a 24-hour period ending around 1200 UTC on the 23rd. Over Cuba, the Instituto de Meteorologica reported a maximum storm total of 24.41 inches in Limonar.

Rainfall in the Florida Keys was considerably less than what was seen over Cuba or Hispaniola, with Key West recording 8.38 inches. In contrast, storm totals along the Gulf Coast were noticeably higher owing to the hurricane's marked deceleration. The maximum rainfall total from an official observation site was 24.24 inches at Eglin AFB (KVPS) in the Florida Panhandle while the highest storm total was 29.66 inches from a CO-OP in Bay Minette, AL. Rainfall totals generally ranged from 10 to 20 inches over most of southern Mississippi and Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle - see Figure 5 (52K GIF). In response to the heavy rains, widespread river flooding occurred in southern Mississippi from 30 September through 2 October flooding homes and forcing evacuations. The Tchoutacabouffa River at D'Iberbville, MS set a record crest of 19 feet at 0200 UTC 30 September.

4. Tornadoes

Most of the reported tornado activity associated with Georges occurred in Florida and Alabama with a total of 28 tornadoes estimated to have touched down, mostly in northwest Florida. No deaths were directly attributible to these tornadoes. Two tornadoes were also reported in Puerto Rico.

c. Casualty and Damage Statistics

Table 5 lists the deaths and insured damage estimates associated with Georges. The 602* direct deaths attributed to Georges make it the 19th deadliest tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin this century (Rappaport and Partagas, 1995). As shown in Table 6, most of the deaths associated with Georges occurred in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, due mainly to flash flooding and subsequent mud slides in high terrain regions. The lone direct death in the United States, which was freshwater flood-related, occurred in Mobile, Alabama.

* - This number represents the best estimate received to-date and is subject to revision at a later date. Totals which appear in Table 5 from the Dominican Republic and Haiti are government-based estimates as reported in media accounts.

Insured property damage estimates supplied by the Property Claims Services Division of the American Insurance Services Group estimates that Georges caused a total of $2.955 billion in damage in the United States including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (see Table 5 for individual state totals). These estimates exclude storm surge damage. To determine the total estimated damage, a ratio of 2:1 is applied to the insured property damage; this is based on comparisons done in historical hurricanes. Thus, the total estimated damage from Georges is $5.9 billion.

In Puerto Rico, there was considerable damage to homes throughout the island. A total of 72,605 homes were damaged, of which 28,005 are estimated to have been completely destroyed. During the hurricane, over 26,000 people were in shelters. In the Dominican Republic upwards of 185,000 were left homeless by Georges and 100,000 remained in shelters through mid-October as electricity and water service remain out in most of the country. Across Haiti, government officials stated that 167,332 had been left homeless by the hurricane.

The agricultural industry in Puerto Rico was hit hard by Georges with estimates of 95% of the plantain and banana crop destroyed along with 75% of the coffee crop.

Despite Georges' weakened state when it moved across Cuba, it had a substantial impact. A total of 60, 475 homes were damaged of which 3,481 were completely destroyed. As was the case in Puerto Rico, the agricultural sector was hard hit with major losses at banana plantations in eastern Cuba.

The damage to dwellings in the United States was not as extensive as that experienced across the Caribbean. In the Florida Keys 1536 homes were damaged of which 173 were completely destroyed, many of which were mobile homes. Some roof and structural damage was also reported along the coast of Mississippi.

In the first 60 days or so after Georges made its final landfall in Mississippi, the American Red Cross spent $104 million on relief services in the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, the Florida Keys and the Florida Panhandle. This makes it the most expensive disaster aid effort in the organization's 117-year history.

d. Forecast and Warning Critique

Overall, the track forecasts for Georges were generally good. The low average errors of CLIPER show that the hurricane followed a climatologically-favored path.

The average track model and official forecast errors for Georges are listed in Table 6. The average official forecast errors are well below the most recent 10-year average. These values represent a 47% to 60% improvement over the 10-year official averages: 60% at 12 hr, 56% at 24 hr, 56% at 36 hr, 53% at 48 hr, and 47% at 72 hr. It should be noted that the slow motion of Georges over the north central Gulf of Mexico contributed to the low errors.

Not surprisingly, most of the track model guidance did quite well with Georges. In fact, with the exception of BAMS and a few periods of the AVNI, AVNO and A98E, the average errors of all the other track models were below the 10-year official averages. This includes the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKM/UKMI) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (EMX) models. Moreover, LBAR had slightly smaller average errors that the official forecast from 12 to 36 hr (although the EMX 48 hr error was 84 n mi the sample size is too small to make any meaningful conclusions). It should be mentioned, however, that although the GFDL track errors were well below the 10-year official forecast errors, it had a distinct left-bias over the Gulf of Mexico, insisting on turning Georges westward into central and southwest Louisiana.

While the average official track errors are exemplary, the average intensity errors are unimpressive. The mean absolute errors, and associated biases, for the official forecast, SHIPS, the GFDL and GFDI, and SHIFOR are listed in Table 7. The official mean intensity forecast errors are within 10% of the most recent 10-year official average with the exception of 72 hr (16%). SHIPS and the GFDI are in fairly good agreement with the official forecast errors while the GFDL is considerably higher at 12 and 24 hr. The official NHC forecast shows a positive bias (i.e. the intensity was over-forecast) for all periods as opposed to the negative bias of the 10-year official average. SHIPS also shows a positive bias for all but the 12 hr period, owing to the absence of land recognition in the model, while both the GFDI and GFDL has a distinct negative bias throughout, with that of the GFDL considerably larger. Of more interest are the biases at specific times.

Examination of the intensity forecast history of Georges shows several interesting trends. The first five official forecasts after the system attained tropical storm strength under-forecast the intensity an average of 18 knots between 12 to 48 hr and 44 knots at 72 hr. While SHIPS' intensity errors were comparable to the official forecast, the GFDL faired worse with 29 knots between 12 and 48 hr and 55 knots at 72 hr. These forecasts represent the period when Georges went through its rapid intensification phase.

The intensity forecasts from 1800 UTC 19 September to 0600 UTC on 20th show a significant positive bias. This is when Georges went through a marked weakening trend. During this period, both the official NHC forecast and SHIPS over-forecast the intensity an average of about 21 knots between 12 and 48 hr; at 72 hr the errors were 43 knots and 36 knots, respectively. The GFDL showed lower errors for this period with a mostly negative bias. Several of the 12 hr forecasts under-forecast the intensity by 50 knots. These data highlight our limited skill level in forecasting rapid, abrupt changes in intensity.

Table 8 lists the various watches and warnings issued in association with Georges. Since Georges was well-forecast, the lead times on the hurricane warnings were more than sufficient to allow for the completion of protective actions. A total of nearly 897,000 residents evacuated portions of south and west central Florida including about 100,000 people in Dade County, and 35,000 in the Florida Keys in response to the mandatory evacuation order issued by the Monroe County Emergency Management.


Franklin, J.L. 1997: Status of GPS dropwindsondes. Minutes, 51st Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, Miami, FL.

Franklin, J.L., H.L. Cole, T.F. Hock, D.K. Lauritsen, K.D. Norris, and E.F. Chamberlain, 1997: GPS dropwindsondes and the NOAA G-IV aircraft: New opportunities for forecasting and research. Preprints, 22nd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Ft. Collins, CO, American Meteorological Society, 135-136.

Hagemeyer, R.H., 1998: Super Typhoon Paka December 2 thru 21, 1997. DOC/NOAA Service Assessment, National Weather Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, 28 pp.

Rappaport, E.N. and J. Fernandez-Partagas, 1995: The deadilest Atlantic Tropical cyclones, 1492-1994, NOAA, Technical Memorandum NWS-NHC-47, 41 pp.

Wurman, J. and J.Winslow, 1998: Intense Sub-kilometer-scale boundary layer rolls observed in Hurricane Fran, Science, V.280, p555-7.


The author is indebted to the NWS Forecast Offices in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Florida (Miami, Melbourne, Tampa, and Tallahassee), Alabama (Mobile), and Louisiana (New Orleans/Baton Rouge) for their Post-Storm reports and related data. Data provided by the Instituto de Meteorologica in Cuba is gratefully appreciated. Damage data was kindly provided by the Property Claims Services Division of the American Insurance Services Group. Steve Baig produced the best track maps. Rick Ullom, SERFC Atlanta, Georgia, provided the rainfall figure for the Gulfcoast region; Shawn Bennett, SOO NWS San Juan, Puerto Rico, provided the rainfall figure for Puerto Rico. The author wishes to thank Lixion Avila, Jack Beven, Jerry Jarrell, Miles Lawrence, Max Mayfield, Richard Pasch, and Ed Rappaport for reviewing this document and making numerous suggestions which helped improve the report.

Table 1. Preliminary Best Track - Hurricane Georges, 15 September - 01 October 1998.
Position Pressure
Wind Speed
Lat. (°N)Lon. (°W)
09/15/12009.725.1100930Tropical Depression
18009.826.5100930" "
16/000010.028.1100930" "
060010.329.7100930" "
120010.631.3100535Tropical Storm
180011.032.9100335" "
17/000011.334.6100045" "
060011.736.399750" "
120012.038.199455" "
18/000012.542.098470" "
060012.843.997780" "
120013.145.797385" "
180013.547.497090" "
19/000013.949.097090" "
060014.450.696595" "
120014.952.0954110" "
180015.453.5949125" "
20/000015.754.9939130" "
060016.056.3937135" "
120016.257.7939130" "
180016.459.2956115" "
21/000016.760.6963100" "
060017.162.1966100" "
120017.463.696695" "
180017.865.097290" "
22/000018.266.397090" "
060018.067.497295" "
120018.268.5964105" "
22/180018.669.797095" "
23/000018.870.898070" "
060019.072.199065" "
120019.373.399665" "
180019.874.399465" "
24/000020.574.999265" "
060020.876.099165" "
120021.377.299070" "
180021.978.098975" "
25/000022.779.098780" "
060023.480.298685" "
120023.981.398290" "
180024.682.497590" "
26/000024.883.397490" "
060025.284.297590" "
120025.785.197490" "
180026.285.997590" "
27/000027.086.596995" "
060027.687.297095" "
120028.287.896295" "
180028.888.396295" "
28/000029.388.596195" "
060029.888.796490" "
120030.488.996590" "
180030.688.998465" "
29/000030.689.098650Tropical Storm
060030.688.499240" "
120031.088.199430Tropical Depression


30.987.599630" "
30/000030.886.999830" "
060030.786.3100030" "
120030.785.4100225" "
180030.684.2100425" "
10/01/000030.583.0100625" "
01/060030.581.8100820" "
01/1200    Dissipated
20/060016.056.3937135Minimum Pressure
3 SM SE of Falmouth
21/080017.262.6966100St. Kitts
8 SM SE of Basseterre
21/220018.165.8968100Puerto Rico
20 SM SW of Fajardo
22/123018.268.7962105 Dominican Republic
84 SM E of Santo Domingo
30 SM E of Guantanamo Bay
25/153024.581.898190Key West, Florida
28/113030.488.996490Biloxi, Mississippi

Table 2A. Hurricane Georges selected surface observations, September 1998.
Maximum surface wind speed
(kts) a
gust (kts)
(storm total)
U.S. Virgin Islands
St. Croix
Hamilton Airport976.0 6479 21/1842  6.79
Vitema/Hermon Hill  7181 21/1815   
Maria Hill@972.2 7898 21/1534   
Jolly Hill        7.41
Estate The Sight/CO-OP        2.63
Annaly/CO-OP Observer        5.30
East Hill/CO-OP Observer        6.20
St. Thomas
Cyril E. King Airport991.0 668121/2031   4.99
Bonne Resolution Gut        6.02
National Park Service Guinea Gut        5.70
Wintberg/CO-OP Observer        2.26
St. John
USGS Rain Gage        3.41
Coral Bay/CO-OP Observer        2.40
Catherineburg/CO-OP Observer        7.56
Puerto Rico
Luis Munoz Marin Intl. Airport979.7 698121/2318  5.26
Roosevelt Roads NS (TJNR)971.4 7693 21/2250  4.57
Ponce (TJPS)  658522/0330    
Quebradillas@978.4 788522/0244    
Naranjito (Barrio Guadiana Alto)@   109 22/0040   
Rincon@983.1 8711322/0445    
Mayaguez Bo Guanajibo976.9        
Cupey Rio Piedras/CO-OP974.5       9.39
Isabela KP4MYO@  89143 22/0610   
Yabucoa@ (Courtesy of Sun Oil Co.)  65 8321/2140   
USGS Rain Gages
Caguas        28.67
Lago El Guineo / Villalba        24.62
Rio Saliente at Coabey Ne Jayuya        24.30
Rio Portuguez at Tibes        18.46
Quebrada Salvatierra / San Lorenzo        16.93
Rio Grande de Arecibo / Utuado        16.87
Lago Garzas / Adjuntas        13.49
River Espiritu Santo / Rio Grande        13.04
NWS CO-OP Observer Rainfall
Jayuya        28.36
Orocovis (Cacao)        23.62
Coamo        22.50
Mayaguez City        21.30
Cayey        20.97
Maricao        18.75
Juana Diaz (Guayabal)        17.35
Ponce        13.83
San Lorenz        12.99
Yauco        9.62
Trujillo Alto        8.33
USGS Storm Surge Estimate -
Punta Lucrecia  71      
Sagua La Grande   80     
Cayo Coco988.0        
Guantanamo Bay  60 20/0245   8.98
Limonar        24.41
Bermeja        20.32
Santiago de Cuba        18.54
Nueva        12.44
Ciego de Avila        7.91

a Standard NWS ASOS and C-MAN averaging period is 2 min; buoys are 8 min.

b Date/time is for sustained wind when both sustained and gust are listed.

c Storm surge is water height above normal astronomical tide level.

d Storm tide is water height above NGVD.

e Estimated.

f Power failed shortly after this observation;

g Gage failed at 27/1945 UTC, a higher value may have occurred.

h Maximum gusts recorded (time unknown)

# Preliminary estimate.

@ Unofficial observer data, higher gusts may have occurred; anemometer height 30 feet AGL.

Table 2B. Hurricane Georges selected surface observations, September 1998.
Maximum surface wind speed
(kts) a
gust (kts)
(storm total)
Leesburg1013.325/1953193125/2218   1.19
Sanford1013.625/2055203025/1834   1.81
Patrick AFB (KCOF)1013.525/1955152325/1943    
Titusville (KTIX)1011.925/1550204025/1550   1.69
Miami Intl. Airport (KMIA)  334425/1056   0.94
Tamiami Airport  335724/2318    
NWSFO MIA/TPC        1.76
Homestead        3.50
Tavernier        8.41
Duck Key  7084     
Marathon Airport (KMTH)   5825/1100    
Marathon/Monroe EOC   96     
Vaca Key     4-5   
Grassy Key     4-5   
Cudjoe Key     5-6   
Ramrod Key     5-6   
Big Pine Key     5-6   
Summerland Key     5-6   
New Port Richey (RRF)1011.425/1953203625/2153   1.71
St. Pete/Clearwater (KPIE)1010.725/1953243425/2117   0.65
St Petersburg (KSPG)1010.125/1953233525/2331    
Tampa Airport (KTPA)1010.625/2056203025/2116  1.23
McDill AFB (KMCF)1010.825/1955203725/2100   1.04
Old Port Tampa  113325/2150    
Sunshine Skyway  293325/2150    
Winter Haven (GIF)1012.225/1953193125/2146   0.89
Sarasota/Brad Airport (KSRQ)1009.025/1853293625/1926   2.14
Punta Gorda (PGD)1009.525/2053304225/1816   0.42
Fort Myers (KFMY)1008.225/1753313825/1732   0.70
Regional SW Airport (RWS)1007.725/1653243725/1703    
Naples  314825/1855    
Inverness (INVF1)        0.46
Ruskin (KTBW)        1.43
Arcadia/Horse CK (ARHF1)        3.02
Levy County       2-4e 
Citrus County       1-3e 
Hernando County       2-3e 
Pasco County       1e 
Pinellas County       2-3e 
Hillsborough County      2-3e 
Manatee County       3e 
Sarasota County       3-4e 
Charlotte County       4-5e 
Lee County       2-3e 
Tallahassee Airport (KTLH)1003.330/0752242929/2224   6.42
FSU Weather Station   3926/2129    

a Standard NWS ASOS and C-MAN averaging period is 2 min; buoys are 8 min.

b Date/time is for sustained wind when both sustained and gust are listed.

c Storm surge is water height above normal astronomical tide level.

d Storm tide is water height above NGVD.

e Estimated.

f Power failed shortly after this observation;

g Gage failed at 27/1945 UTC, a higher value may have occurred.

h Maximum gusts recorded (time unknown)

# Preliminary estimate.

@ Unofficial observer data, higher gusts may have occurred; anemometer height 30 feet AGL.

Table 2C. Hurricane Georges selected surface observations, September 1998.
Maximum surface wind speed
(kts) a
gust (kts)
(storm total)
Florida (continued)
Apalachicola (KAQQ)  283329/1311    
Panama City Airport (KPAM)  243729/0605    
Munson (NE of Milton)        38.46
Bay Minette        29.66
Andalusia        26.90
Milton (CO-OP)        25.06
Milton School        14.62
Milton/Whiting Field (NSE)992.5n/a385028/0240   18.41
Destin (DTS)999.429/2353334928/0156   6.21
Hurlburt AFB (HRT)1000.029/2200446929/0216   17.08
Crestview (KCEW)999.629/2253284328/2005   19.98
Eglin AFB (KVPS)994.029/2300427928/0642   24.24
Pensacola APT (KPNS)998.729/0953445828/0321   15.78
Pensacola NAS (KNPA)997.929/0956406127/2200   12.84
Pensacola EM Office   6128/0235    
Pensacola (TV Station)        26.83
Shell Point Sailboard Club   3929/2045    
St. Teresa Beach   4929/2225    
Pensacola Beach     7.7   
Choctawhatchee Bay     5.2   
Destin Harbor     5.2   
Panama City Beach     5.2   
Mobile Regional Airport (KMOB)989.928/09214455 28/0924  15.02
Mobile Brookley Field (BFM)989.928/08534754 27/2240   
Evergreen (GZH)999.629/204131*39* 29/0353  7.67
Fairhope AG. Station   5628/0709   14.57
Fairhope (CO-OP)        15.82
Grand Bay AG. Station   5228/1811    
Semmes AG. Station   4328/1836   17.84
Alabama Port        13.66
Atmore Nursery (CO-OP)        15.15
Bay Minette (CO-OP)        29.66
Brewton        14.80
Brewton AG Center        16.34
Brewton (CO-OP)        18.44
Leakesville (CO-OP)        11.44
Niceville        19.53
Alberta (CO-OP)        9.90
Georgiana (CO-OP)        19.15
Jackson (CO-OP)        12.76
Thomasville (CO-OP)        10.20
Whatley (CO-OP)        15.15
Mobile Downtown        13.13
Greenville (CO-OP)        18.15
Andalusia (TV Station)        26.90
Gulf Breeze        26.87
Jay        18.19
Spanish Port        19.86
Camden (CO-OP)        10.77
Gulf Shores     9.0*   
Bayou La Batre     8.8*   
Downtown Mobile     8.5*   
Fort Morgan - Gulf     8.5*   
Mobile Bay - Belle Fountaine      8.3*  
Weeks Bay     6.5*   
Fort Morgan - Bay     5.8*   
Ono Island     5.4*   
Dauphin Island - Bay     5.3*   
Gulfport Airport (KGPT)  4263 28/0931f   
Keesler AFB (KBIX)964.928/105565 28/0855   9.18
Pascagoula/Trent Lott Airport (KPQL)  3647 27/2306f   
Gulfport Harbor - Harrison County CD  5369 28/10158.1  
Gulfport - 1 MI North of Beach
(Courtesy of MS Power and Light)
Gulfport - Harrison County CD967.228/1015       
Pascagoula CO-OP Observer        16.68
Ocean Springs        15.68
Vancleave        14.81
Wiggins        13.25
Lyman        9.85
Pass Christian Harbor     6.2  8.79
Pascagoula - Bayou Chico      9.6*  
Biloxi - Black Bay     8.8*   
Gulfport     7.6*   
Pass Christian     6.4*   
Bay St. Louis     5.8*   
New Orleans Intl. Airport (KMSY)996.628/10523546 28/1137f   
New Orleans Lakefront APT (KNEW)994.528/09533948 28/0911f   
Slidell (KSIL)  314228/0401f   0.87
Lake Pontchartrain
East Lake - Rigolets  375428/0910 5.8  
Mid Lake - Pontchartrain Causeway  42 59*28/10204.7  
West Lake - Frenier  33*4528/0110 4.7  
North Lake - Mandeville  214228/0840    
New Orleans Audubon Park        0.88
Slidell CO-OP Observer        1.48
Covington CO-OP Observer        1.11
Bogalusa CO-OP Observer        2.98
West End Marina     5.3   
Industrial Canal     7.3   
North End Causeway     4.3   
Lake Borgne
Bayou Bienvenu     7.4   
Bayou Dupre     6.4   
Plaquemines Parish - East Side         
NE Gardene Bay
(13 MI ESE of Pointe A La Hache)

a Standard NWS ASOS and C-MAN averaging period is 2 min; buoys

b Date/time is for sustained wind when both are 8 min, sustained and gust are listed.

c Storm surge is water height above normal astronomical tide level.

d Storm tide is water height above NGVD.

e Estimated.

f Power failed shortly after this observation;

g Gage failed at 27/1945 UTC, a higher value may have occurred.

h Maximum gusts recorded (time unknown)

# Preliminary estimate.

@ Unofficial observer data, higher gusts may have occurred;

* - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Data (Mobile District) anemometer height 30 feet AGL.

Table 3. Hurricane Georges selected amateur radio surface weather reports, September 1998.
W. RestoCayey PR-18.1N/66.15W21/2300 17 51
KRRFPR/18.4N 66.9W22/03001008.580-90 80-90
KP4SCPuerto Rico/Ponce21/0020 60+ 60+
WP4MTGPuerto Rico/Fajardo21/2340 113 113
WP4MZAPuerto Rico/Fajardo CD21/2115 110* 125-130*
  21/2130 110* 117-130*
  21/2140 80* 110*
KP4RFPuerto Rico/Carilina21/2230 42* 62*
  21/2230 55* 93*
K4FCZVieques Isl/18.1N56.2W21/14491009.130-40 30-40
  21/2000974.6Over 100 
  21/2020967.835-40 50
N5NGCulebra Island21/1739 58-69 
N2PBSt. Croix21/11091008.820-3542
NP2LSt. John21/13031007.520-3543
  21/14001004.948* 54*
VP2VQNTortolla Island21/1200 40-45 
8R1BB/NP2St. Thomas21/1237 35+60+
KV4FZSt. Croix EOC21/01071013.2  
  21/1424 4663
  21/1452 4681
  21/1800 58 104

* - measured

Table 4. Hurricane Georges selected National Buoy Data Center (NBDC) observations, September 1998.
Sustained wind
Peak gust
Date/ time
Significant Wave Height
CMAN Stations
Lake Worth, FL (LKWF1)1010.025/1100303525/1400  
Fowey Rocks, FL (FWYF1)1006.325/10004552 25/1000 
Molasses Reef, FL ( MLRF1)1003.125/08004653 25/1400 
Long Key, FL (LONF1)1000.025/1000475825/1400  
Sombrero Key, FL (SMKF1)994.525/13008192 25/1500 
Sand Key, FL (SANF1)990.5c25/13005671 25/1400 
Dry Tortugas, FL (DRYF1)976.325/20005968 26/0000 
Venice, FL (VENF1)1011.630/0900242730/1800 
Keaton Beach, FL (KTNF1)1005.430/0900303729/2300  
Cedar Key, FL (CDRF1)1007.230/1000293430/0500  
Cape San Blas, FL (CSBF1)1003.230/08003843 29/1900 
Dauphin Island, AL (DPIA1)987.028/08005971 28/0600 
Grand Isle, LA (GDIL1)997.328/0100405027/2000  
Southwest Pass, LA (BURL1)989.127/22005463 27/2200 
NOAA Buoys
42003 (25.9N / 89.9W)983.226/1800516626/2000 23.5
42039 (28.8N / 86.0W)1002.627/0700435627/0300 22.5
42036 (28.5N / 84.5W)1009.227/0100344826/1800 17.4
42040 (29.2N / 88.3W)963.427/2300546827/1900 35.7
42007 (30.1N / 88.8W)983.5c28/040044c 54c27/210016.0c
41522 (14.3N/58.7W)  35 20/1852  
34-Knot Ship Reports
PJPS (13.3N / 67.0W)1011.019/180035 19/1800 6.6
WFLG (19.5N / 66.4W)1015.022/090038 22/0900 13.1
DHPK (23.3N / 71.9W)1009.023/060035 23/0600 9.8
FNZP (24.0N / 87.8W)1009.427/060043 27/0600 3.3
LAVD4 (29.1N / 87.0W)1004.529/060037 29/0600 9.8
PJKP (29.3N / 85.7W)1002.929/150044 29/1500 9.8
C6JN (29.4N / 87.8W)1002.129/180035 29/1800 13.1
PFEI (27.7N / 85.1W)1006.430/120039 30/1200 6.6

a Standard NWS C-MAN averaging period is 2 min; buoys are 8 min.

b Date/time is for sustained wind when both sustained and gust are listed.

C Buoy failed shortly after this observation; a lower pressure and a higher wind and wave height may have occurred.

Table 5. Deaths and insured damage estimates associated with Hurricane Georges. Death figures based on reports from respective governments and/or media sources. United States damage estimates courtesy of the American Insurance Services Group/PCS Division.
LOCATIONDeaths($ Billions)
Antigua 2 
St. Kitts and Nevis 40.402@
U.S.Virgin Islands 00.050
Puerto Rico 01.750
Dominican Republic 380*>1.0@
Haiti 209* 
Bahamas 1 
Cuba 6 
United States (Mainland)
United States Total 12.955
Storm Total 602 

* - These are the best estimates received to-date; subject to revision at a later date.

@ - Estimates from media reports - no official figures have been received.

Table 6.
Preliminary forecast evaluation of Hurricane Georges: Heterogeneous sample.
Errors in nautical miles for tropical storm and hurricane stages with number of forecasts in parenthesis. Numbers in italics represent forecasts which were better than the official forecast.
Forecast TechniquePeriod (hours)
CLIP 30 (50)56 (48)85 (46)112 (44)169 (40)
GFDI 32 (50)60 (48)76 (46)95 (44)148 (40)
GFDL* 32 (50)60 (48)77 (46)92 (44)135 (40)
LBAR 25 (50)45 (48)64 (46)90 (44)140 (40)
AVNI 41 (36)74 (34)115 (32)170 (28)358 (24)
AVNO* 81 (40)97 (38)119 (36)149 (32)277 (28)
BAMD 34 (50)67 (48)104 (46)147 (44)242 (40)
BAMM 37 (50)74 (48)113 (46)154 (44)245 (40)
BAMS 58 (50)108 (48)159 (46)211 (44)307 (40)
NGPI 28 (42)52 (41)86 (40)118 (39)181 (37)
NGPS* 34 (22)39 (21)60 (20)91 (20)152 (19)
UKMI 36 (47)71 (45)98 (42)128 (38)178 (34)
UKM* 31 (24)58 (23)89 (22)121 (20)166 (18)
A90E 30 (50)62 (48)105 (46)159 (44)220 (40)
A98E 30 (50)62 (48)105 (46)169 (44)254 (40)
A9UK 31 (22)53 (21)72 (20)89 (20)129 (18)
EMX  70 (10) 84 (9)125 (9)
NHC Official 28 (50)49 (48)71 (46)87 (44)117 (40)
NHC Official 10-Year Average

* - Output from these models was unavailable at time of forecast issuance.

Table 7. Mean absolute intensity forecast errors for Hurricane Georges - homogeneous sample. Number in parenthesis below 10-Year averages is the number of cases.
Forecast TechniquePeriod (hours)
SHIPS8.9 (-0.1)14.7 (0.8)18.6 (1.3)20.6 (2.8)25.5 (6.1)
GFDI11.0 (-6.2)15.1 (-3.1)17.8 (-2.1)19.7 (-3.0)24.0 (-8.2)
GFDL*20.4 (-19.7)18.5 (-16.8)18.2 (-13.7)18.5 (-13.6)22.7 (-16.2)
SHFR10.3 (0.8)17.7 (0.9)22.3 (-1.2)25.2 (-3.2)28.4 (-6.0)
NHC Official7.2 (0.2)13.1 (1.5)15.9 (3.9)18.3 (7.4)25.3 (3.8)
Number of Cases5048464440
NHC Official 10-Year Average
7.0 (-1.5)
12.0 (-2.3)
15.9 (-3.8)
18.5 (-5.2)
21.4 (-5.8)

* - Output from this model is unavailable at time of forecast issuance.

Table 8. Watch and warning summary, Hurricane Georges, September 1998.
18/2100Hurricane Watch Issued St. Lucia to Anguilla including Saba and St. Maarten.
19/1500Hurricane Watch Extended North/East St. Lucia northward and then northwestward to the British/U.S. Virgin Islands
19/2100Hurricane Warning Issued Dominica northward to Anguilla except St. Barthelemy and the French portion of St. Martin.
Hurricane Watch IssuedPuerto Rico
20/0300Tropical Storm Warning St. Lucia and Martinique
20/0900Hurricane Warning extended westward Dominica north and west to Puerto Rico
20/2100Hurricane Watch IssuedDominican Republic
21/0900Hurricane Warning extended westward Dominica north and west to the Dominican Republic
Tropical Storm Warning and Hurricane Watch discontinued Martinique to St. Lucia
21/1500Hurricane Watch extended north and west North coast of Haiti from St. Nicolas to the border of the Dominican Republic / Southeast Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Hurricane Warning discontinued All islands east of the Virgin Islands except Antigua, Barbuda, and the French Islands of St. Barthelemy and St. Martin.
Hurricane Warning discontinued Antigua, Barbuda, and the French Islands of St. Barthelemy and St. Martin.
21/1900Hurricane Watch Issued Eastern Cuba from the Province of Las Tunas to Guantanamo
22/0300Hurricane Warning extended westward U.S. & British Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, the Southeast Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands.
22/0900Hurricane Warning discontinued U.S. & British Virgin Islands
22/1500Hurricane Warning Issued Eastern Cuba from the Province of Las Tunas to Guantanamo, the Central Bahamas from Acklins to Cat Island
Hurricane Watch Issued Eastern Cuba for the Provinces of Camaguey to Sancti Spiritus
Hurricane Warning discontinuedPuerto Rico
23/0900Hurricane Warning Issued Eastern Cuba for the Provinces of Camaguey to Sancti Spiritus / Central Bahamas.
Hurricane Watch Issued South Florida from Deerfield Beach southward on the east coast...and from south of Bonita Beach on the west coast including the Florida Keys.
Hurricane Watch Issued Western Cuba for the Provinces of Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Matanzas/Northwest Bahamas.
23/1500Tropical Storm Warning Issued Jamaica
Hurricane Warning discontinuedDominican Republic
23/2100Tropical Storm Warning Issued Cayman Islands...Cayman Brac and Little Cayman.
24/0600Hurricane Warning discontinued The Southeast Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands.
24/0900Hurricane Warning Issued Northwest Bahamas / South Florida from Deerfield Beach southward on the east coast...and from south of Bonita Beach on the west coast including the Florida Keys.
Hurricane Watch IssuedFlorida east coast north of Deerfield Beach to Stuart... and the Florida west coast north of Bonita Beach to Longboat Key.
Hurricane Warnings discontinuedHaiti
24/1500Tropical Storm Warnings discontinued Cayman Islands...Cayman Brac and Little Cayman.
24/2100Tropical Storm Warning Issued Florida east coast north of Deerfield Beach to Stuart.
25/0300Hurricane Warning Issued Florida west coast north of Bonita Beach to Longboat Key.
Tropical Storm Warning Issued Florida west coast north of Longboat Key to Bayport.
Hurricane Warnings discontinuedCentral Bahamas.
25/0500Hurricane Watch discontinued Florida east coast Deerfield Beach to Stuart.
25/0700Hurricane Warnings discontinued Cuba
Hurricane Watch discontinuedFor Cuba east of Matanzas to Pinar Del Rio.
25/1300 Hurricane Warning changed to a Tropical Storm Warning Florida east coast from north of Florida City to Deerfield Beach.
25/1500Hurricane Watch Issued Gulf Coast from Morgan City Louisiana to St. Marks Florida.
Hurricane Warnings discontinuedNorthwest Bahamas.
25/2100Tropical Storm Warnings discontinued Florida east coast from north of Florida City to Deerfield Beach.
Hurricane Warnings discontinued Florida east coast south of Florida City to Key Largo.
26/0300 Hurricane Warning changed to a Tropical Storm Warning Florida Keys south of Key Largo and Florida west coast south of Bayport.
Hurricane Watch discontinuedFor Cuba east of Matanzas to Pinar Del Rio.
26/0900Tropical Storm Warnings discontinued Florida west coast from Longboat Key to Bayport.
26/1200Tropical Storm Warnings discontinued Florida Keys south of Key Largo and the Florida west coast south of Longboat Key
26/1500Hurricane Warning Issued Morgan City, Louisiana to Panama City, Florida.
Tropical Storm Warning and a Hurricane Watch Panama City, Florida to St. Marks, Florida.
Hurricane WatchMorgan City, Louisiana to Intracoastal City, Louisiana.
27/2100Hurricane Watch discontinued Panama City, Florida to St. Marks, Florida.
28/0300Hurricane Watch discontinued Morgan City, Louisiana to Intracoastal City, Louisiana.
28/1500Hurricane Warning discontinued Destin, Florida to Panama City, Florida.
Tropical storm Warning discontinued Panama City, Florida to St. Marks, Florida.
Hurricane Warning changed to a Tropical Storm Warning Grand Isle, Louisiana to Morgan City, Louisiana.
28/2100 Hurricane Warning changed to a Tropical Storm Warning Grand Isle, Louisiana to Destin, Florida
Tropical Storm Warning discontinued Grand Isle, Louisiana to Morgan City Louisiana.
29/0300Tropical Storm Warning discontinued Grand Isle, Louisiana to the Mouth of the Mississippi River, Louisiana.
29/0900Tropical Storm Warning discontinued Mouth of the Mississippi River to Pascagoula, Mississippi.
29/1500Tropical Storm Warnings discontinued Pascagoula, Mississippi to Destin, Florida.

Jack Beven

Last updated May 1, 1999